One-child policy Wikipedia

Several Indian states are considering implementing a controversial two-child policy and incentivising sterilisation as a means of population control. Modern research from the West indicates that growing up without siblings puts a child at no intellectual, social or emotional disadvantage. In China, which enforced a brutal one-child policy from 1979 to 2015, other repercussions are now apparent.

  1. Modern research from the West indicates that growing up without siblings puts a child at no intellectual, social or emotional disadvantage.
  2. A final criticism of two-child policies in India is that the laws violate women’s rights.
  3. Long-term consequences of the policy included a substantially greater number of males than females in China and a shrinking workforce.
  4. The one-child policy was managed by the National Population and Family Planning Commission under the central government since 1981.
  5. Economic growth without an equivalent increase in jobs makes India’s massively unequal society even more so, raising the potential for unrest.

In some recent years, India has squeaked past China to claim the title of fastest-growing major economy. But it has never expanded fast enough to produce sufficient formal employment for everyone. The country needs about nine million new jobs every year just to keep pace; the annual shortfall helps relegate many to India’s old standby, agricultural work. India’s burgeoning population, Upadhyay said in his plea, was the cause of corruption, had spurred a rise in crimes and pollution and had led to a dearth of resources and jobs. By the end of April, India’s population is expected to reach 1,425,775,850 people, with projections indicating further growth for several decades more, the UN said.

Potential social problems & “little emperor” phenomenon

Couples with a single child do not work longer, or have more free time either. Instead, educated couples preferred to make a greater commitment to one child than split the family’s time and resources among two or more siblings. This, they believe, gives that one child a better education, a monopoly on the family’s attention, and eventually a greater advantage in the job market. One-child policy, official program initiated in the late 1970s and early ’80s by the central government of China, the purpose of which was to limit the great majority of family units in the country to one child each. The rationale for implementing the policy was to reduce the growth rate of China’s enormous population.

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Raising deep fears of demographic disaster and complete exhaustion of natural resources works well for governments seeking to camouflage their administrative flaws, said Krishnan, the activist. With nearly identical levels of fertility in 1971, just under six births per woman, the countries’ experiences half a century ago have charted their population path into the 21st century, according to the UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs (DESA). In July, India’s most populous state of Uttar Pradesh, under staunch Modi ally Yogi Adityanath, decreed that couples who have a third child will no longer be allowed to apply for government jobs – a measure critics said was aimed at Muslims. The fertility rate dropped from 5.9 in the 1950s and to 4.0 in the 1970s.

The Pros of a Child Limit in India

Data from the Health Ministry’s most recent National Family Health Survey, released last week, showed India’s total fertility rate had dropped to 2.0, below the so-called replacement rate of 2.1 needed to maintain a stable population. In urban areas it was even lower, with an average of 1.6 children per woman. According to a study by Gustafson (2014), the one-child policy has led to a significant decrease in the availability of family caregivers for the elderly in China.[202] So, tens of one child policy india millions of retirees now only have one child to rely on for care. This has led to an “inverted pyramid,” in which two sets of elderly parents must rely on a single married couple of two adult children (each of whom is an only child with no siblings), who in turn have produced a single child on whom the family must eventually rely on in the next generation. The one-child policy was managed by the National Population and Family Planning Commission under the central government since 1981.

Given Australia’s growing ties to India, it should be concerned about what population policy could mean for the erosion of democratic norms in India. As early as March 2022, reports circulated on Chinese social media that India’s population had already surpassed China’s, though this was later dispelled by experts. But the notion that India should emulate China’s past population policies is misguided at best, and dangerous at worst. India will surpass China as the country with the world’s largest population in 2023, according to the United Nations World Population Prospects 2022 report. The physical needs of nearly a billion and a half people are imposing a terrible strain on India’s environment.

But as the country lifts itself from deepest poverty, it is no longer subject to the famines of old. Instead, its future as far and away the world’s biggest work force is leading some to hope for an “Indian century” in the making. India is on the cusp of passing China in population, according to the latest U.N. At 1.428 billion people, India has already edged past mainland China, the data show, and it will soon surpass the mainland and Hong Kong combined. The whole world knows and talks about the “one-child” phenomenon in China.

After a family has two children, there will also be incentives if one of the parents undergoes voluntary sterilisation. Four Indian states with large Muslim populations have already passed versions of a “two-child policy”. What’s more, built into many of these policies are incentives for families to have just one child. And in 2021, a senior government minister proposed a national “one-child” policy. There was a time when India and China wanted to suppress the rate of population growth, by reducing the number of births. Some in India have theorised that the Indian government’s attempt at family regulation is a strategy to divert public attention from its poor governance record.

Reports surfaced of Chinese women giving birth to their second child overseas, a practice known as birth tourism. Likewise, a Hong Kong passport differs from China’s mainland passport by providing additional advantages.[example needed] Recently[when? ] though, the Hong Kong government has drastically reduced the quota of births set for non-local women in public hospitals. The National Family Planning committee developed the slogan Wan Xi Shao (‘later, longer, and fewer’), which was first enacted in 1973 and was in effect until 1979.[98] This national idea encouraged later marriages and having fewer children.

However, while India is expected to overtake China as the world’s largest population in the next decade, many have questioned the necessity and motives of the proposed two-child policy in Indian states. Though the state of Uttar Pradesh has a large population of 240 million, research shows that the birthrate in the state nearly halved between 1993 and 2016 and continues to fall, with predictions that by 2025, the average number of children per mother will drop to 2.1. As happened at the height of China’s one-child policy, Indians could lose government jobs and more if such laws were passed at the national level. Some Indian states and municipalities have already legislated that people with more than two children are ineligible for government jobs and to stand for political office. China’s one-child policy was controversial because it was a radical intervention by government in the reproductive lives of citizens, because of how it was enforced, and because of some of its consequences. Although some of the government’s enforcement methods were comparatively mild, such as providing contraceptives, millions of Chinese had to endure methods such as forced sterilizations and forced abortions.

As in China, in some states in India, women’s education and their aspirations for their children have contributed to lower birth rates. Birth rates in other states with high Muslim populations have also declined, but at a slower rate. After the founding of the People’s Republic of China in 1949, infant mortality dropped significantly.

When barely 50 per cent of enrolled children are able to read (Pratham 2005), it is not surprising that parents seek alternatives to government schools. One way to meet these expenses is to reduce the number of children who need such investments. Like Assam, many other Indian states have also imposed a two-child policy, which deprives citizens with more than two children of basic rights such as running in political elections, accessing bank loans and receiving free rations, among others. Such regulations have gained traction throughout the country since the ruling Hindu nationalist Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) assumed power in 2014, although the national government has not yet enacted such a law. Nutrition is also vital, said Reddy of the Public Health Foundation of India, citing the troubling rates of anaemia among young people that the survey revealed – an indicator of both poor nutrition and poor health. “The survey reveals that 67 per cent of children under five and 59 per cent of girls aged were anaemic.

The main driver of these trends is the fertility level in the two nations, said John Wilmoth, Director of the UN Population Division. Together, China and India’s collective populations equal more than one third of the world’s eight billion citizens. India is about to surpass China as the world’s most populous nation in the coming days, the UN population data chief told reporters on Monday. A confluence of factors from the government to village level came together to bring about the change, but one of the most important has been improvements to education, according to Muttreja.

Should India Have a One Child Policy?

On 31 May 2021, China’s government relaxed restrictions even more, allowing women up to three children.[135][136][137][138] This change was brought about mainly due to the declining birth rate and population growth. Because of this new belief, the population would be likely to keep declining, which could have tragic repercussions for China in the coming decades. September 25, 1980, is often cited as the official start of China’s one-child policy, although attempts to curb the number of children in a family existed prior to that. A voluntary program introduced in 1978 encouraged families to have only one or two children. In 1979 there was a push for families to limit themselves to one child, but that was not evenly enforced across China. The Chinese government issued a letter on September 25, 1980, that called for nationwide adherence to the one-child policy.

After the one-child policy ended in 2016, China’s birth and fertility rates remained low, leaving the country with a population that was aging rapidly and a workforce that was shrinking. With data from China’s 2020 census highlighting an impending demographic and economic crisis, the Chinese government announced in 2021 that married couples would be allowed to have as many as three children. The one-child policy was a program in China that limited most Chinese families to one child each. It was implemented nationwide by the Chinese government in 1980, and it ended in 2016. The policy was enacted to address the growth rate of the country’s population, which the government viewed as being too rapid. It was enforced by a variety of methods, including financial incentives for families in compliance, contraceptives, forced sterilizations, and forced abortions.

It built an economy that today is more than five times the size of India’s. “Government campaigns, involvement of the development sector and community leaders can inculcate behavioural change through inclusive measures,” Mishra added. Between 2023 and 2015, the number of persons aged 65 or over is expected to nearly double in China and to more than double in India, he added.